Why is it important for a cell to repair its DNA?
DNA repair, any of several mechanisms by which a cell maintains the integrity of its genetic code.
DNA repair ensures the survival of a species by enabling parental DNA to be inherited as faithfully as possible by offspring.
It also preserves the health of an individual.
How do you repair damaged DNA?
Most damage to DNA is repaired by removal of the damaged bases followed by resynthesis of the excised region. Some lesions in DNA, however, can be repaired by direct reversal of the damage, which may be a more efficient way of dealing with specific types of DNA damage that occur frequently.
How does DNA repair work?
DNA damage repair mechanisms. Direct reversal: Some DNA-damaging chemical reactions can be directly “undone” by enzymes in the cell. Excision repair: Damage to one or a few bases of DNA is often fixed by removal (excision) and replacement of the damaged region. In base excision repair, just the damaged base is removed.
How does DNA become damaged?
DNA can be damaged via environmental factors as well. Environmental agents such as UV light, ionizing radiation, and genotoxic chemicals. Replication forks can be stalled due to damaged DNA and double strand breaks are also a form of DNA damage.