For example, some mutations alter a gene’s DNA sequence but do not change the function of the protein made by the gene.
A very small percentage of all mutations actually have a positive effect.
These mutations lead to new versions of proteins that help an individual better adapt to changes in his or her environment.
What effect does a substitution mutation have on a protein?
A mutation in DNA alters the mRNA, which in turn can alter the amino acid chain. A base substitution may have three different effects on an organism’s protein. It can cause a missense mutation, which switches one amino acid in the chain for another.
How can a tiny mutation have a large impact on the new organism?
The only mutations that matter to large-scale evolution are those that can be passed on to offspring. A single germ line mutation can have a range of effects: No change occurs in phenotype. Some mutations don’t have any noticeable effect on the phenotype of an organism.
Why do some substitution mutations result in a malfunctioning protein?
Some substitution mutations result in a malfunctioning protein, but others do not. Some substitution mutations result in the same amino acid being added, which does not change the structure of the protein at all.
Do mutations always lead to disease?
Few mutations are bad for you. In fact, some mutations can be beneficial. But the mutations we hear about most often are the ones that cause disease. Some well-known inherited genetic disorders include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, phenylketonuria and color-blindness, among many others.
Photo in the article by “Wikipedia”