Cell damage (also known as cell injury) is a variety of changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well as internal environmental changes.
Cell damage can be reversible or irreversible.
Depending on the extent of injury, the cellular response may be adaptive and where possible, homeostasis is restored.
What are the types of cell injury?
There are two types of cell death, necrosis and apoptosis, which differ in their morphology, mechanisms, and roles in disease and physiology. The cellular response to injurious stimuli depends on the type of injury, its duration, and its severity.28 Jan 2006
What causes cell injury?
Extremely important common cause of cell injury/cell death. Causes include reduced blood flow (ischemia), inadequate oxygenation of the blood, decreased blood oxygen-carrying capacity.
Why should you study cell injury?
The most important goal is to gain a general understanding of cellular adaptations, cell injury and the two types of cell death, known as necrosis and apoptosis. The study of cell injury and cell death is the basis for the understanding of disease mechanisms.
What is cell injury and adaptation?
When cells are injured, one of two patterns will generally result: reversible cell injury leading to adaptation of the cells and tissue, or irreversible cell injury leading to cell death and tissue damage. When cells adapt to injury, their adaptive changes can be atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, or metaplasia.12 Sep 2018
What happens if the cell wall is damaged?
Damage to the cell wall disturbs the state of cell electrolytes, which can activate death pathways (apoptosis or programmed cell death). They also play an important role in the elimination of damaged cells, such as those irreversibly injured by environmental or antibiotic stress.24 Sep 2019
What is cell death called?
If cells are no longer needed, they commit suicide by activating an intracellular death program. This process is therefore called programmed cell death, although it is more commonly called apoptosis (from a Greek word meaning “falling off,” as leaves from a tree).