What Are The Major Causes Of Cell Injury?

Oxygen Deprivation

Extremely important common cause of cell injury/cell death.

Causes include reduced blood flow (ischemia), inadequate oxygenation of the blood, decreased blood oxygen-carrying capacity.

What are the causes of cellular injuries?

Physical agents for cell injury are:

  • Mechanical trauma (e.g., Road accident)
  • Thermal trauma (e.g., Heat and cold)
  • Electricity.
  • Radiation (e.g., U.V. radiation)
  • Rapid changes in atmosphere pressure.

What is cell injury?

Cell injury is defined as a variety of stress, a cell encounter as a result in changes in its internal and external environment. All cells of body have an inbuilt mechanism to deal with changes in environment to an extent. (RCI-Reversible Cell Injury; ICI-Irreversible Cell Injury) Sub Topics: Etiology.

What are the types of cell injury?

There are two types of cell death, necrosis and apoptosis, which differ in their morphology, mechanisms, and roles in disease and physiology. The cellular response to injurious stimuli depends on the type of injury, its duration, and its severity.

Why should you study cell injury?

The most important goal is to gain a general understanding of cellular adaptations, cell injury and the two types of cell death, known as necrosis and apoptosis. The study of cell injury and cell death is the basis for the understanding of disease mechanisms.

Can damaged cells be repaired?

This happens when DNA building blocks are swapped or changed around, or where one or both strands of DNA is torn. When damage occurs, the cell sends repair proteins to the spot to quickly resolve it. In the process of repairing itself, it may be destroyed or converted to a cancer cell.

What happens when a cell is damaged?

Harmful molecules are continually bombarding your body. The worst offenders are glucose (a type of sugar), and free radicals, by-products of energy production. Both can damage the proteins, fats and DNA that make up your cells. When you are young, your body is able to repair most of this damage.

What is cell death called?

If cells are no longer needed, they commit suicide by activating an intracellular death program. This process is therefore called programmed cell death, although it is more commonly called apoptosis (from a Greek word meaning “falling off,” as leaves from a tree).

What is the Cell?

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning “small room”) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”. The study of cells is called cell biology or cellular biology.

What is Hydropic change?

Hydropic change is one of the early signs of cellular degeneration in response to injury. Hydropic change refers to the accumulation of water in the cell. Note that the lumina of the tubules are closed by swollen epithelial cells.

How are damaged cells replaced?

When cells become damaged in any way or die, the body produces new cells to replace them. This process is called cell division. One cell doubles by dividing into two. Two cells become four and so on.

What happens when the cell membrane is damaged?

In the presence of cell swelling, this damage results, particularly in myocardial cells, in detachment of the cell membrane from the cytoskeleton, rendering it susceptible to stretching and rupture. Partially reduced oxygen free radicals cause injury to cell membranes and other cell constituents.

What are the types of necrosis?

There are six types of necrosis:

  1. Coagulative necrosis.
  2. Liquefactive necrosis.
  3. Caseous necrosis.
  4. Fat necrosis.
  5. Fibroid necrosis.
  6. Gangrenous necrosis.

When a cell is damaged it releases a chemical called?

The inflammatory response (inflammation) occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause. The damaged cells release chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling.

What is irreversible injury?

26. The basic mechanism of substances acting at the cellular level provides the fundamental basis for cell injury or cell death. A chemical or other stimulus may cause cell injury by transiently (reversible) or permanently (irreversible) altering the homeostasis of the cells.

What is cell injury and adaptation?

When cells are injured, one of two patterns will generally result: reversible cell injury leading to adaptation of the cells and tissue, or irreversible cell injury leading to cell death and tissue damage. When cells adapt to injury, their adaptive changes can be atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, or metaplasia.