Can methylation of nucleotides play a role in DNA replication?
Removal of methyl groups from nucleotides is concurrent with the conversion of dNTPs to dNMPs during DNA synthesis.
Does methylation increase gene expression?
When a CpG island in the promoter region of a gene is methylated, expression of the gene is repressed (it is turned off). The addition of methyl groups is controlled at several different levels in cells and is carried out by a family of enzymes called DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs).
How does methylation affect gene expression?
DNA methylation may affect the transcription of genes in two ways. First, the methylation of DNA itself may physically impede the binding of transcriptional proteins to the gene, and second, and likely more important, methylated DNA may be bound by proteins known as methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBDs).
Why is DNA methylation important?
Important DNA Methylation Factors. DNA methylation is the process through which a methyl group is added to DNA nucleotides. DNA methylation can stably alter the gene expression of a cell, which may direct processes like stem cell differentiation and genomic imprinting.
Why does methylation prevent transcription?
DNA methylation regulates gene expression by recruiting proteins involved in gene repression or by inhibiting the binding of transcription factor(s) to DNA. During development, the pattern of DNA methylation in the genome changes as a result of a dynamic process involving both de novo DNA methylation and demethylation.
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